What did James S House write
Three Faces OF Social Psychology 1977
what did James House Claim
claimed the current “crisis” of social psychology largely reflects the division of the field into three increasingly isolated domains or faces
What are the three faces of social psychology
(1) psychological social psychology,
(2) symbolic interactionism,
(3) psychological sociology (or social structure and personality).
how are the three faces of social psychology different
how they research and obtain knowledge
what is psychological social psychology focused on
individual psychological processes in relation to social stimuli using laboratory experiments.
similar to traditional psychology
What is a difference between human interaction and social psychology in terms of experimentation?
Human interaction tends to ask questions that are very difficult to answer in traditional experiments
What are the two subgroups (faces) of sociological psychology?
Face One: symbolic interactionism focuses on face-to-face interaction processes using naturalistic observations; and other qualitative data collection
Face Two: psychological sociology/SSP focuses on the relation of macrosocial structures and processes to individual psychology and behavior, most often using survey methods.
When was sociological social psychology born and by whom?
1902 by Charles Horton Cooley
What concept did Human nature and the social order by Cooley present
The looking glass self
What is a fundamental concept to symbolic interactionism developed by Cooley?
looking glass self
What is an area of sociology that focuses on social interactions and on interrelations of self, personality, values, and mind with social structure and culture?
Sociological social psychology or microsociolgy
Social structure is usually referencing the following:
macro level social forces including social institutions and patterns of institutionalized relationships
What are the major social institutions recognized by sociologists?
What are the enduring orderly and patterned relationships between the elements of a society?
Who said that the self cant be understood in isolation and must be studied in interactions with others?
who thought that the self is not an inherent property of human nature but rather a socially-constructed entity: our sense of self is built upon the life-long experience of seeing ourselves through the eyes of others
what is the self concept according to Cooley
an image of yourself as having an identity separate from other people
how did Cooley develop his idea of the self concept
watching his kids at play
according to the looking glass self how do kids judge themselves
based on how they imagine others will react to them
how can the methods of early sociologists like Cooley be described
gathering information through observation in the everyday lives the sociologists
what are the three parts of the looking Glass self
1 We imagine how we appear to others (our perception of how others see us
2 We imagine the reaction of others to our (imagined) appearance
3 We evaluate ourselves according to how we imagine others have judged us
is the looking glass self always a conscious process that occur quickly
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what is a consequence of the looking glass self coming from our imagination
distorted self image that fails to accurately reflect others opinion of us
according to Cooley are we affected by the stated opinions of others or what we think the opinion of others are
what we think they are
what are the three perspectives of sociological social psychology
1 symbolic interaction-ism
2 social structure and personality
3 group processes
what perspective views the world as a social construction, built through the web of social relationships and meanings.
according to symbolic interaction what is the nature of our reactions
we react to the meaning of things and not the things themselves
who is one of the founders of social psychology that is also known for American Pragmatism
what addition did George mead add to social psychology
what allows people to anticipate what others expect of us in terms of social psychology
what terms from social psychology are children displaying when they pretend to be people they see on TV
who does Mead think children individualize first
significant others like mom and dad
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what is the generalized other
internalized attitudes expectations and viewpoints of society that serves as a reference point for behavior
what is significant other
people whose judgments are most important to our self concept
what is the significant other dependent on
age of the person
what is The part of our self that is aware of the expectations and attitudes of society that is a large role in adults according to Mead
what is The unsocialized, spontaneous, self-interested component of personality that is a very large role for children according to Mead
who wrote Mind Self and Society
what are key concepts in the construction of self and society according to Mead
what is a design for living passed from one generation to the next according to Social psychology
what are rules defining expected situations and appropriate behaviors according to social psychology
what are the two parts of socialization according to social psychology
1 The process of learning norms
2 the process of learning who you are families are central to this
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who published Meads work and coined symbolic interaction-ism
what principle is fundamental to symbolic interaction-ism
Humans act toward a thing on the basis of the meaning they assign to the thing.
if meanings are not inherent in a state of nature how are they assigned according to Blumer
negotiated through interaction with others
what modifies the perceptions of symbols according to Blumer
Individuals own thought process
how did Cooley and Mead differ
Mead thought that only certain people could influence our identity and they changed over time both in people and how that influence worked
Cooley Thought everyone could influence our self identity
how do children think of the world according to Mead
they are the center of the universe and lack the ability to take the view of other people
what are the three stages of perception development according to Mead
1 preparatory stage
2 game stage
3 play stage
what do children learn in the preparatory stage
imitation and language and practice symbols
what do children become more aware of in the play stage
how does the awareness of other peoples perceptions manifest in children according to Mead
play as other people
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what is a qualitative change that takes place in the way children execute their perceptions of others
they can create social situations as opposed to merely mimicking
what change takes place in children perception in the Game stage according to Mead
they expand perception to generalized other
understand broader society
people can have multiple roles
they begin to understand that people have opinions of them
what is the ME concerned with
what is the I concerned with
thinks about what the social self means
who is widely known and celebrated as a major figure in the development of symbolic interactionism and for developing the dramaturgical perspective.
what is the dramaturgical perspective
people live their lives like actors performing on a stage
who described each individuals performance as the presentations of self or a persons efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others
does Goffman believe that there is a core self
what kind of interactions is Goffman interested in
face to face interactions
what is an example of an encounter
what is an encounter according to Goffman
when two or more people join each other in maintaining a single mutual focus of cognitive and visual attention, requiring special communication privileges
what are the two main elements of an encounter identified by Goffman
what are Faces according to Goffman
the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact. Face is an image of self delineated in terms of approved social attributes
what is a line according to Goffman
a pattern of verbal and nonverbal acts by which he expresses his view of the situation and through this his evaluation of the participants, especially himself
what is the term for what people do in order to maintain face according to Goffman
what is face work according to Goffman
the way or ways one presents their self to others to influence the definition of the in face-to-face interaction while engaging in a repetitious evaluation of the situation and the views of all participants
what is it called when an individual acts in a calculating manner to manipulate others’ impressions according to Goffman
what happens when you fail to maintain face or give the face you want to present according to Goffman
person is in wrong face
what might people do when someone else is in wrong face according to Goffman
offer them a way to save face
what are three ways to save face
aggressive face work
what process seeks to sustain the ritual order by correcting the social error by following steps known as the interchange. The line must be “corrected” if the ritual order is to be sustained.
how many parts is the interchange made up of (corrective process)
(1) challenge where the threat is acknowledged;
(2) offering where the offender corrects the offense;
(3) acceptance where the offering is accepted by the offended person; and (4) gratitude or thanks where the forgiven person conveys a sign of gratitude to those who accepted his or her offering
what two steps in the interchange are necessary to save face
offering and acceptance
what is the term when an individual takes defensive measures by keeping off topics and staying away from activities or people that are inconsistent with the face he or she maintains.
what is an approach to social interaction rather than a process.
aggressive face work
what kind of face work is necessary when there is no other option but to ignore an error
aggressive face work
what kind of face work is fishing for compliments
aggressive face work
how does power affect face work
persons in power position are much more likely to be accepted in their performance
what is deference and demeanor
two kinds of ritual activity
what is a rituals are acts by which appreciation and respect are regularly conveyed from one individual to another (e.g., compliments, salutations, apologies, offerings) that confirm their relationship to the recipient
what are rituals are behaviors that one uses to express “to those in his immediate presence that he is a person of certain desirable and undesirable qualities.” Demeanor refers to attributes derived from appearance, how an individual carries themselves, the nature of their movements, their self-control, and many other forms of outwardly visible presentation of self.
how does Goffman group forms of deference
avoidance rituals and presentationsal rituals
what kinds of deference rituals are the forms of deference that lead an individual to respect the face, personal space, and privacy of others. Avoidance rituals of a more defensive nature are the primary activity in the avoidance process.
what kinds of deference is
acts through which an individual expresses how they regard another and how they will treat them during the social interaction. Thus, Goffman (1967) concludes, “avoidance rituals specify what is not to be done, presentational rituals are what is to be done
what types of individuals are there according to Goffman in terms of public spaces
singles and withs
what is a conversation or conversation-like activity maintained by persons who differentially share other interaction capacities — is also possible where one member of a with momentarily sustains exclusive talk with someone who is not in the with
what are cell phones in terms of cross talk
symbolically represents the other
what is a form of unfocused interaction that occurs during an encounter when one member of a With partnership engages in conversation or conversation-like activity, which varies in exclusivity, with one or more persons on their smartphone who are not in the With partnership
digital cross talk
what are the different types of digital cross talk
what influences the propensity that a person will engage in cross talk
how much they value the positive evaluation of their partner
what type of cross talk is when one or more persons in a With partnership engage in exclusive cross-talk by way of text messaging, social media, video chat, video game, or phone call
what is the type of cross talk occurs when an interactant in a With partnership engages in semi-exclusive cross-talk by way of text messaging, social media, video game, or phone call and shares information about the digital cross-talk
what is Randall Collins associated with
interaction ritual chains
how do successful rituals affect people
can pump up individuals with emotional energy
how might failed rituals affect a person
drain emotional energy
how might Collins describe the way people and situations take place
each person flows from situations to situation drawn to those interactions where their cultural capital gives them the best emotional energy
how might Collins describe the way a person is constructed
From the outside in, selves are continually and thorougly social
describe the chain of interaction ritual
individuals continuously negotiate partnerships in (chains of interaction rituals) in which conversations create symbols of group membership
if every encounter is a marketplace where then does emotional capital come from according to Collins
emotional resources are aquired from previous encounters
what are people motivated to do in ritual encounters according to Collins
move toward ritual enocunters that pay the greatest emotional returns for thier micro resources.
what happens to emotional returns once a person reaches personal equilibrium according to Collins
emotional returns stabilize or decline
what is an organized and interactive system of thoughts feelings identities and motives that
1) is Born of self-reflexivity and language
(2) People attribute to themselves
(3) Characterize specific human beings.
what are categories people use to specify who they are and to locate themselves relative to other people.
in terms of others what does identity imply
both sameness and distinctiveness
how many types of identity are there and what are they
describe the personal identity
Unique identifier like Im a genius
describe social identity
groups, statuses, and categories to which individuals are social recognized as belonging.
describe collective identity
framed through active relationships to each other. Members are recognized by each other and outsiders.
describe the self concept
The totality of an individual’s thoughts and feelings about a particular object – namely his or her self.
How we imagine and perceive our self.
Inextricably tied to I-Me dualism found in self.
Both an object of perception and reflection as it requires the individuals (I) to stand outside themselves as detached objects of observation (ME).
what field of sociology is Peggy Thoits associated with
who claims identifying processes or explanatory mechanisms (as well as conditions under which individual-level phenomena occur) is the common thrust of both psychological and cognitive social psychology.
according to Thoits, from where do sociologists draw more from psychological or cognitive social psychological literature
according to Thoits what is a key difference in terms of independent variables of greatest interest to the disciplines of psychological social psychology and SSP
Psychologists tend to focus on the influence of others on the individual while social structure and personality researchers examine
directly the impacts of the individuals’ role relationships
or their relative power, prestige, or hierarchical locations
on cognitions, affects, and actions.
describe the how in terms of SSP Researchers
refers to how strongly and in what direction these variables are associated with one another.
what type of researcher is focused not only inspect the influence of specific and generalized others on the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of the individual, but observe the individual’s influence on specific others and on the social order
symbolic interactionists can be described as a hybrid of what two disciplines? Why?
SSP and Psychology because they pay attention to structure like ssp and identify mutual influences between individual and society like psychology
whos explanatory mechanisms are often less deterministic, more complex, and more interpretive than those of psychologists because of major differences in epistemology and methodology
what field of study extensively focuses on key processes or mechanisms linking self and society according to symbolic interactionist theory’ — role-taking abilities, interpersonal perceptions, impression formation and management
what does small groups research examine
how the presence of a group or the structure of a group influences either the individual or the group as a whole.
in the past what did sociologists and psychologists focus on in terms of small group research
initially shared a common focus on how various group structures affected conflict, cooperation, cohesion, information now, decision making, and the formation of power and status hierarchies
what is expectation states theory
explains the self-fulfilling prophecy, specifically, how status characteristics come to affect the exercise of power and influence in small task-oriented groups
According to Thoits and Expectation states theory what key mechanisms are culturally attached to statuses such as gender, race, and social class.
what does expectation states theory tell us about a persons beliefs
show that performance expectations (in person or in the absence of face-to-face interaction) can cause culturally based beliefs about ability to come true.
In terms of Thoits and Expectation states theory what does psychological research tend to identify compared with symbolic interactionists
verbal and especially nonverbal behaviors as the more proximate mechanisms
in addition to small group processes what is another topic of independent investigation in psychology and group processes
Control Mastery or self efficacy
sociologists have studied the degree to which, a sense of personal control or mastery over life enables individuals to resist the negative effects of stressful experiences based on whos concepts of internal and external locus of control
what do sociologists presume when a person is confronted with stressors in terms of Control
that a sense of control is a product of prior experiences and that perceiving control makes an individual more likely to engage in problem solving when confronted with stressors.
in contrast with sociologists, what do psychologists examine in terms of control
examine the conditions under which internal, stable, and global attributions for success and failure are made and the consequences of self-efficacy beliefs for actual behavior.
with the exeption of clinical psychology contrast the efforts of sociologists and psychologists in terms of deviance and control
Sociologists seem to spend more time and effort attempting to explain deviant behavior than psychologists
psychologists give more attention to conformity and obedience
Including psychological and biological mechanisms what do sociologists attempt to identify and test in terms of deviance and control
test the mechanisms or processes that are thought to lead to criminal and other forms of deviant behavior
in terms of socialization what do psychologists tend to concentrate on
child development, childhood socialization (including gender-role socialization), and moral development
in terms of socialization what do sociologists tend to focus on
processes of adult socialization (gender, age, and role-appropriate behavior) and the antecedents and consequences of major role transitions throughout the life course
because of its usefulness in predicting behavior what is a concern of both psychologists and sociologists
in terms of attitude assessment who might spend more time on documenting the social distributions of attitudes and the relationships among them (e.g., are individuals’ political attitudes consistent with their social opinions?).
Between sociologists and psychologists who is likely to spend more time honing in on attitude-behavior problem,” seeking to ascertain why attitudes are usually such weak predictors of behavior and to identify circumstances that strengthen the attitude-behavior link (Ajzen 1988).
true or false, identification of Stress negative effects of major life events, ongoing strains, and daily hassles on physical and mental health is the sole jurisdiction of Sociologists
False, both sociologists and psychologists document this relationship
while coping processes tend to be studied by psychologists, and social support is studied by sociologists, what have both disciplines shown in terms of their effects on stress
both disciplines have shown that social support and coping resources can buffer the harmful effects of stress.
Of the different domains studied by sociologists and psychologists which one is the research virtually indistinguishable
what three self processes are both sociologists and psychologists interested in, in terms of self and identity
between psychologists and sociologists who is likely to believe that self is a link, if not the key link, between individual behavior and the social order.
between psychologists and sociologists who is likely to believe that the self as crucial to understanding mental health and psychopathology.
who is associated with STRATEGIC IMAGE MANAGEMENT ONLINE: Self-presentation, self-esteem and social network perspectives
Jian Raymond Rui & Michael Stefanone
what dies the study conducted by Jian Raymond Rui & Michael Stefanone examine
self presentation behaviors on social network sites
what provides novel venues for self- disclosure self-presentation in and impression management according to Rui and Stefanone